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Nowadays skin diseases are becoming quite common due to various environmental factors. Skin pigmentation and dark spots over the skin is a severe problem seen in both the genders, especially more seen in females. This may be due to the variations in hormonal imbalance, continuous usage of cosmetic products like concealers, creams, or any other chemicals.
Any discoloration that is present on the skin can be termed as pigmentation. This is a completely harmless which happens due to excess melanin production. When this deposits over the skin it results in hyperpigmentation.

Types of Pigmentations

  1. Age spots
    Age spots are the most commonly seen pigmentation issue which happens as a result of sun damage (caused due to frequent exposure to the sun).
  2. Melasma
    Melasma also known as chloasma is another type of hyperpigmentation, which is characterized by spots over the face that covers a larger area on the skin. These are usually resulted due to hormonal changes. For instance, during pregnancy the hormone variations may trigger the production of melanin and cause darkening of the skin.
  3. Freckles (ephelides)
    Freckles appear as tiny dots and specks on the face and shoulder area. This also happens due to over exposure of skin to the sunlight.
    Causes
    • UV rays remains as the biggest culprit that triggers over production of melanin. The damage caused due to these harmful rays cannot be visible immediately. This takes a long term to develop over the face.
    • Any type of skin damage caused by injury (also known as post-inflammatory pigmentation)
    • Hormonal variations during pregnancy
    • Skin rashes
    • Infections to the skin (such as acne)
    • Melasma occurs commonly in people those taking contraceptives or subjected to the hormone replacement therapy.
    • Hyperpigmentation can also be due to metabolic causes. The mainly noted complaints are deficiency like Vitamin B12 and folic acids.
    • Intake of certain medicines for a long time can lead to gradual development of pigments. E.g.: Anti-inflammatory drugs, cytotoxic drugs, antimalarial drugs, and psychotropic drugs.
    • If the skin is exposed continuously with chemicals like salicylic acid, bleomycin and cisplatin can lead to hyperpigmentation.
    • Mercury poisoning is another listed cause that lead to hyperpigmentation. This can also occur due to cutaneous exposure from topical application of ointments which contains mercury.
    • Due to fungal infections like tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and tinea versicolor, there is chances for developing hyperpigmentation.
    • Any underlying medical conditions like, Celiac disease, dermatitis, eczema, medullary cystic kidney diseases, some malignant conditions also promote hyperpigmentation.
    • Sometimes dermatological procedures to the skin can cause hyperpigmentation. E.g.: laser procedures.

Symptoms
Typically, hyperpigmentation occurs over the face.
• Brown patches on the skin
• Patches are symmetrical
• Patches usually appear on the forehead, chin, cheeks, and bridge of the nose. They may appear on the forearms and neck.
• Generally, the pigments appear after the inflammation or injury is healed.
• The lesions are usually black or light brown.
• The patches turn darker when exposed to the sunlight.

DIET
Eat clean and healthy food. Include fresh fruits and vegetables which possess lot of antioxidants which has great effects over the skin.
Leafy greens like kale, spinach, Moringa, Cabbage are best suited. Carrot, Beetroot, gourd varieties are good to use in diet. Fruits like oranges, lemons, apple, berries, peers are best to be included in the food you consume.