Iron deficiency anemia is considered as the single most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide. Studies account that 1.62 billion people suffer from anemia globally. Researches also state that anemia is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Anemia is a pathologic condition produced by a decrease in red blood cell (RBC) mass or a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin. RBCs are the one which helps to transport oxygen all over the body. Hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein present in RBCs, which imparts the red color to the blood cells. It also assists to bind oxygen, fight against infections, and prevent blood loss by inducing blood clotting.
Anemia results in less oxygen reaching various parts of your body. This condition mainly affects children and women of reproductive age. If left untreated, this condition can become fatal.
Types of Anemia
Iron Deficiency Anemia
This condition is the most common form of anemia. The iron requirement is very much needed for the production of hemoglobin. Iron deficiency can occur due to severe blood loss, poor diet, and the body’s inability to absorb iron from food. As a result, iron deficiency anemia is generated.
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia
Like iron, vitamin B12 is an important factor for adequate production of hemoglobin. Most of the animal products are rich in vitamin B12 but in the case of a vegan diet, they may have vitamin B12 deficiency. This has an influence on hemoglobin production in your body which may result in anemia. This is also known as pernicious anemia.
Sickle Cell Anemia
This is a serious blood disorder. The red blood cells have a flat disc-shaped or sickle-shaped structure in this type of anemia. The RBCs show the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, known as the sickle cell hemoglobin, which is responsible for the abnormal shape. The sickle cells are sticky and can block the normal blood flow.
This type of anemia shapes in when the body loses its ability to produce enough red blood cells. These red cells are produced in the bone marrow every 120 days. When the bone marrow fails to produce RBCs, there is a drastic fall in blood count and leads to anemia.
This is caused when the red blood cells get destroyed before their normal lifespan is over. The bone marrow is struggling to produce new blood cells fast enough to meet the body’s requirement.
This is an inherited disorder where the body doesn’t create enough RBCs. As a result, people with thalassemia can suffer from mild to severe anemia.
Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic blood disease that might lead to bone marrow dysfunction. It prevents the bone marrow from producing enough red blood cells required for the body. Sometimes it causes bone marrow to produce abnormal RBCs. This can lead to cancer and majorly affect the organs and tissues of your body. Children who inherit Fanconi anemia have birth defects.
Blood Loss Anemia
Due to excessive bleeding during menstruation or any bleeding caused by injury, surgery, cancer, or UTI may also result in blood loss. This leads to the condition blood loss anemia.
RBC drop down mainly occur due to three main reasons:
• The body is not producing enough RBCs.
• The body destroys the RBCs.
• Blood loss due to any injury or any other cause of bleeding. In women, excess bleeding during menstruation can be a reason.
• Pale skin
• Shortness of breath
• Cold hands and feet
• Chest pain
• Hair loss
• Irregular heartbeat
• Low stamina
• Difficulty in concentrating